The most important input parameter in metal forming and manufacturing simulations is material properties. If material properties are not defined accurately, it is inevitable to observe differences between simulation results and real application

For precise material flow prediction, flow curve of the material, which represents the relationship between the flow stress and plastic strain, at different temperatures and strain rates should be defined.

To determine failure of the material, namely cracking and rupture, ductile damage parameters should be determined by performing experimental studies.

Following material properties can be determined by using experimental and empirical methods.

  • Flow stress
  • Flow curve
  • Elastic module
  • Anisotropy
  • Forming limit diagram (FLD)
  • Damage parameters
    • Cockroft
    • Lemaitre
    • Johnson-Cook

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